Liquid Rouges were felt to impart a more natural look than cream or powder rouge (and I will say that my experience is that this is true -- it absorbs into the skin rather than sitting on top.) It also make a good early version of a lip stain, for remember that cheek, lip and nail colors were all one during this time.
1 pint brandy
1 pint benzoin [ed: I assume this means tincture of benzoin]
1 ounce red sandalwood
1/2 ounce brazilwood *
1/2 ounce alum
Mix all ingredients and let stand for 2 weeks in an airtight bottle, shaking regularly. Then strain.
1 ounce alcohol
1 ounce carmine
1 pint rosewater
3 drops rose oil
Mix the alcohol and carmine and let stand together for 2 weeks in an airtight bottle. Then add the remaining ingredients.
*Brazilwood is now endangered and is very hard to come by. However, there is a tree called sappanwood that is sometimes sold as brazilwood, and it is not endangered. If you buy brazilwood sourced from Asia you are probably getting sappanwood, which is not only a necessary modern replacement but also an acceptable historical replacement. In the middle ages the sappanwood tree was the original plant called "brazilwood" -- it was only after the discovery of a similar tree in the Americas by Columbus that the new species took over as the favorite for its comparative cheapness and accessibility.
Sappanwood is Caesalpinia sappan whereas Brazilwood is Caesalpinia echinata.